Alps Know How - Glossary

Key term Issue Definition relevant for 'Future in the Alps'
de: Erreichbarkeit
fr: accessibilité
it: accessibilità
sl: dostopnost
Mobility The possibility to be (physically) accessible depends on the availability and quality of transport infrastructure, transport means and transport services. Accessibility is usually measured by accessible inhabitants, workplaces, regional value within a certain travel time.
Added value
de: Wertschöpfung
fr: valeur ajoutée
it: valore aggiunto
sl: dodana vrednost
Regional Value Added Additional benefit generated through a sustainable process (development, production, education, management, know-how-appliance, cooperation, networking).

The term "regional value added" is originally used as an economic term and is defined as difference between the total revenues of the factors of production located in a specific region and their total purchases. In recent years the term is often not only used in this purely economic sense, but also with respect to other properties of sustainability within a region. We used the term also strongly in this latter sense as the additional benefit for a region generated through a sustainable process. The added value can be composed of economic benefits (e.g. number of employees and revenues, confront for instance CENSIS, 2003, where the Italian mountain regions value added is assessed), social benefits (e.g. know how, networking, education, cultural values) and ecological benefits (=ecosystem services).
Alchemilla cleistophylla
Biodiversity Hotspots Refer to:
Alpine biodiversity
de: Alpine Biodiversität
fr: biodiversité alpine
it: biodiversità alpina
sl: biotska raznovrstnost na območju Alp
Protected Areas The variety and abundance of species in the geographical region of the Alps, their genetic composition, as well as the variety of natural communities, ecosystems, and landscapes in which they occur.
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Biodiversity Hotspots Refer to:
Applied research
de: Angewandte Forschung
fr: recherche appliquée
it: ricerca applicata
sl: uporabne raziskave
Policies and Instruments Research that is oriented towards a practical problem. Theoretical concepts should be assessed regarding their practical relevance.
Awareness raising
de: Bewusstseinsbildung
fr: sensibilisation
it: presa di coscienza
sl: oblikovanje zavesti
Governance Capacity To enhance the conscious knowledge of one's feelings, motives, and desires related to a specific topic.
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Balanced development
de: Ausgeglichene Entwicklung
fr: développement équilibré
it: sviluppo equilibrato
sl: uravnoteženi razvoj
Mobility Communities with no dominant economic sector and a low percentage of commuters.
de: Biodiversität
fr: biodiversité
it: biodiversità
sl: biotska raznovrstnost
Biodiversity Hotspot "Biodiversity" is often defined as the variety of all forms of life, from genes to species, through to the broad scale of ecosystems (for a list of variants on this simple definition see Gaston 1996). "Biodiversity" was coined as a contraction of "biological diversity" in 1985, but the new term arguably has taken on a meaning and import all its own. A symposium in 1986, and the follow-up book BioDiversity (Wilson 1988), edited by biologist E. O. Wilson, heralded the popularity of this concept. Ten years later, Takacs (1996, p.39) described its ascent this way: "in 1988, biodiversity did not appear as a keyword in Biological Abstracts, and biological diversity appeared once. In 1993, biodiversity appeared seventy-two times, and biological diversity nineteen times". Fifteen years further on, it would be hard to count how many times "biodiversity" is used every day by scientists, policy-makers, and others. The global importance of biodiversity now is reflected in the widely accepted target to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by the year 2010.

While the history of this term is relatively short (compare it to other terms covered in this encyclopedia), it already has raised important, distinctive, philosophical issues. Some of these are entangled in the very definition of "biodiversity", an issue treated in the first sections below. A challenge is the reconciliation of process-based and elements-based perspectives on biodiversity. Overall, the major issue for biodiversity is how its conservation may be integrated with other needs of society. (Source:
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CAP (Common Agricultural Policy)
Mountain Agriculture The goals of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) were laid down as early as in the Treaty of Rome in 1957 and may be summarised as follows:
  • Increasing productivity
  • Ensuring an adequate standard of living for the agricultural population
  • Stabilising markets
  • Securing supply
  • Offering reasonable prices for consumers

Moreover, a joint organisation of the agricultural markets was agreed to, with the intention to jointly finance the agricultural policy, among other things. In the decades to follow, the CAP was constantly reformed (LLM, 2006):

1968: Mansholt Plan: reduction of the agricultural population and creation of more efficient and competitive farm structures
1972: Structural measures to combat surpluses
1985: Green Paper “CAP Perspectives“ (specifically combating surpluses)
1992: MacSherry reforms: reduction of agricultural prices and promotion of market mechanisms (reform of the cereals, oilseed and beef market, introduction of premiums for farmland abandonment and environmental measures)
Agenda 2000: Increasing competitiveness and stabilising agricultural expenses up to the level of 1999 (market reforms for various products, introduction of a policy to make the rural environment the 2nd agricultural-policy pillar, further development of environmental measures, promotion of food safety and product quality)

The last major reform was adopted in Luxemburg in 2003. It included decoupling subsidies from production and linking them to defined environmental, animal welfare and food safety requirements and their control (cross-compliance); cutting subsidies and expanding the 2nd pillar of rural development. The regulations governing the milk market were similarly reformed.

Carex microglochin
Biodiversity Hotspots

Refer to: or:

Coherence (of public policies)
de: Kohärenz (der öffentlichen Politiken)
fr: cohérence (des politiques publiques)
it: coerenza (delle politiche pubbliche)
sl: koherenca (javnih politik)
Policies and Instruments Various policy instruments are designed and applied in a coherent way, contributing to non-conflicting policy objectives.
Commuter mobility
de: Pendlerverkehr
fr: trafic des pendulaires
it: mobilità pendolare (sistematica)
sl: dnevna migracija
Mobility Travel between one's home and place of work on a regular basis, including travel behaviour and spatial aspects.
de: Konsultation
fr: consultation
it: consultazione
sl: posvetovanje
New Forms of Decision Making Gathering opinions and information from interested parties as an essential part of the policy development process, enhancing transparency and ensuring that proposed policy is realisable and legitimate from the point of view of stakeholders (Towards a reinforced culture of consultation and dialogue – General principles and minimum standards for consultation of interested parties by the commission COM (2002) 704 final).
Co-operation / network
de: Kooperation / Beziehungen pflegen
fr: cooperation / se faire des relations
it: cooperazione / formare una rete di consulenza
sl: sodelovanje / povezovanje
Regional Value Added, New Forms of Decision Making Working together for the purpose of sustainable development and of generating added value.

Cross-sector cooperation: different sectors working together for the purpose of sustainable development and of generating added value.

Horizontal cooperation: Network between business of the same production level.

Vertical cooperation: Network within a sector between business of different production levels.

Regional/local cooperation: public and private institutions working jointly on a regional or local level to achieve a common purpose
de: Kriterien
fr: critères
it: criteri
sl: merila
New Forms of Decision Making Standards, rules, or tests for the identification of stakeholders.
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Decision making process
de: Entscheidungs-(findungs)prozess
fr: processus de prise de décisions
it: processi decisionali
sl: proces sprejemanja odločitev/proces odločanja
New Forms of Decision Making Decision making processes as they are understood by the Q5-Team are made of several phases and steps, which have to be considered when discussing the required framework conditions:
  • Clarifying the starting point (idea, open question, unsolved problem etc. with a need for decision: delimitating content, time, space, actors
  • Assessing the situation
  • Considering options
  • Preparing the decision making process
  • Selecting the appropriate methods
  • Negotiatiating and making decisions
  • Implementation
  • Accompanying information
  • Monitoring and evaluation
See also 'new forms of decision making' and the Synthesis Report (chapter 2.5).
de: Entschwefelung
fr: désulfurisation
it: disolfazione
sl: razžvepljevanje
Alps and Energy Desulphurisation is a chemical process where sulphur (S) is removed from fossil fuel products such a fuel oils, petrol, natural gas or kerosene.

With this catalytic process, the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) can be substantially reduced. In the 1970's, the emissions of sulphur dioxide were at its peak. This caused widespread air pollution and was one of the main causes of acid rain, which had a detrimental effect on the ecosystem, including humans and even buildings (e.g. made out of lime- or sandstone). With strict regulations for fuel desulphurisation in power plants and refineries in industrialised countries and the collapse of the Soviet Union, emissions of sulphur dioxide could be greatly reduced.
Direct marketing
de: Direktvermarktung
fr: commercialisation directe
it: commercializzazione diretta
sl: neposredno trženje
Protected Areas The effort to enhance producers income by selling self-made goods and services directly to the end-user and thus to avoid trade costs.
de: Disparität
fr: disparité
it: disparità
sl: neskladje
Mobility The condition or fact of being unequal.
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EMAS ("eco-management and audit scheme")
de: Gemeinschaftssystem für das Umweltmanagement und die Umweltbetriebsprüfung
fr: Système de l'CE pour rendre compte de ses performances environnementales
it: Strumento dalla CE per valutare e migliorare le prestazioni ambientali
sl: sistem certificiranja z vidika trajnostnega ravnanja z okoljem
Protected Areas The objective of EMAS is to continuously improve the environmental protection at operational level. EMAS helps to remove ecological and economic weak points, economise material and energy and thus save expenses. EMAS is a certification system for enterprises, but can exceptionally be used in a wider sense to evaluate sustainable development of protected areas.
de: Befähigung, Empowerment
fr: capacité, renforcement de l’autonomie
it: conferimento di responsabilità
sl: opolnomočenje, krepitev moči
New Forms of Decision Making Shift of social and political processes so that the citizens or community groups are granted greater legitimacy leading to distributive change, such as better access to goods and services or a greater number of opportunities for participation in political processes (expansion in the ability of the citizens or communities to take action on their own behalf, Elwood).
Endemic Species
de: endemische Arten
fr: espèces endémiques
it: spezie endemiche
sl: endemicne vrste
Biodiversity Hotspots In biology and ecology, endemic means exclusively native to the biota of a specific place. A species that is endemic is unique to its own place or region: found only there, such as an island, a mountain range (e.g. the Alps), a river etc., and not found naturally anywhere else.
Endogenous potentials
de: endogene Potenziale
fr: potentiels endogènes
it: potenzialità endogene
sl: endogeni potenciali
Regional Value Added, Protected Areas Economic, social and ecological opportunities of development existent in a region or a country. Mobilisation of endogenous potential through regional development, economic and social infrastructure, environmental education, ecological valorisation, knowledge management, public participation. Endogenous potential can be defined as the totality of development opportunities in a limited space and time; they include natural resources as well as human skills and social abilities.
Endogenous resources
d: endogene Ressourcen
fr: ressources endogènes
it: risorse endogene
sl: endogeni viri
Regional Value Added, Protected Areas Economic, social and ecological resources existent in a limited space (region, country).
Evaluation (of public policies)
de: (öffentliche Politik-) Evaluierung
fr: évaluation (des politiques publiques)
it: Valutazione (delle politiche publblico)
sl: vrednotenje/ocenitev politik
Policies and Instruments Assessment of public policies in relation to objective standards or to stated policy objectives. Public policies may be evaluated in terms of their
  • relevance
  • coherence and
  • impacts.
Évolène Cattle
Biodiversity Hotspots

Refer to: (in German, French and Italian)

External costs
de: externe Kosten
fr: coûts externes
it: costi esterni
sl: zunanji stroški
Mobility Refer to a negative side-effect of an economic transaction, an act of exchange, consumption, or production. It is the opposite of an external benefit and is often called a "negative externality".
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Framework (for a decision making process)
de: Rahmenbedingungen
fr: conditions cadrei
it: condizioni quadro (per un processo decisionale)
sl: okvirni pogoji (za proces odločanja)
New Forms of Decision Making A structure or skeletal used as a basis for supporting decision making processes. It is a set of assumptions, concepts, values, rules and practices that constitute the conditions under which decision making processes are carried out.
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Mountain Agriculture

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a multilateral agreement under international law signed in 1947 to establish binding framework conditions for trade relations between the signatory states (cf. HAUSER & SCHANZ, 2000. The foundation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) was agreed in the course of the Uruguay Round in 1994. It serves as the umbrella organisation for any agreements of the Uruguay Round as well as the GATT Treaty. The Agreement of Agriculture concluded during the Uruguay negotiations affects the agricultural sector.
The agreement governs the reduction of production-related subsidies, market access restrictions and export limitations for agricultural products. All trade barriers not related to tariffs (e.g. quantitative restrictions) are to be converted into tariffs and, similar to already existing market access restrictions, are to be reduced by an average of 36% no later than six years after the effective date of the agreement. At the same time, internal, production-related subsidies are to be reduced by 20%.
In the context of WTO terminology, all subventions and subsidies are divided into three different categories. The classification is analogous to the colours of a traffic-light (green: permitted; amber: to be reduced and, consequently, red; prohibited). The agricultural sector is far more complicated: It has no real red box, even though internal subsidies, which exceed the default threshold values, are prohibited. These measures, which considerably distort general trade (subsidies related to prices, internal measures stimulating production), form part of the amber box and are described in Par. 6 of the Agreement of Agriculture. Par. 6, sub-par. 5, on the other hand, details permitted, production-related measures (blue box). However, they are only permitted in case they have an effect that restricts production.
In contrast, Annex 2 (green box) governs the exceptions for permitted measures or measures which considerably or slightly distort general trade, i.e. internal subsidies without any effect on production (e.g. measures in regional, social or environmental policy such as training, consulting, marketing, infrastructure) and direct payments without market bias.

The subsequent WTO negotiations have not been met with success so far. In the course of the Doha Round in 2001, a review of the subsidisation categories – the Amber, Blue and Green Box – and the inclusion of environmental standards were decided upon. After the failure of the WTO Ministerial Conferences in Seattle in 1999 and in Cacún in 2003, a framework agreement on the continuation of negotiations was concluded after all in 2004. Issues on the agenda were in particular the improvement of market access for all products (except sensitive products to be detailed), the expiry of all types of export subsidies, a rapid expiry of the amber box (development toward a real red box) and a marked reduction of the funds in the blue box. In contrast, the standards previously envisaged were not discussed anymore. Since the failure of the negotiations in Geneva in 2006, any discussion was suspended until further notice.

Good governance
de: Gutes Regieren, Good Governance
fr: bonne gouvernance
it: buona governance
sl: dobro upravljanje
New Forms of Decision Making Good governance ("White Book EC") includes openness and transparency of decisions, public participation, responsibility and clear distribution of roles, effectiveness of decisions by subsidiarity and coherence.
Coherence: clear, logical and consistent argument, theory or practice.
Subsidiarity: the principle that a central authority should perform only those tasks which cannot be performed at a more local level.
Governance capacity
de: Handlungsfähigeit
fr: capacité de gouvernance
it: capacità di governance
sl: sposobnost upravljanja
Governance Capacity Governance: rules, processes and behaviour that affect the way in which individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their common affairs, particularly as regards openness, participation, effectiveness and coherence.
Capacity: the ability or power to do something.
In the context of 'Future in the Alps' we focus on the governance capacity of local or regional social entities (municipalities, regional or local institutions etc.).
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Hot spots
de: Brennpunkte
fr: centres d’intérêt
it: punti focali
sl: žariščne točke
New Forms of Decision Making Topics or themes undergoing big changes (legal or others) or of high social relevance (what is in the headlines of the news).
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Impacts (of public policies)
de: Wirkungen (von öffentlichen Politiken)
fr: effets (des politiques publiques)
it: effetti (delle politiche pubblico)
sl: vplivi/učinki
Policies and Instruments Marked effects of the implementation of public policies. There are short-term, mid-term or long-term effects. The impacts appear on the economic, social and ecological sphere, and can be measured by various indicators.
Implementation (of public policies)
de: Umsetzung (von öffentlichen Politiken)
fr: mise en oeuvre (des politiques publiques)
it: esercizio (delle politiche pubbliche)
sl: implementacija javnih politik
Policies and Instruments Process of applying policy instruments with the aim of achieving policy objectives.
Implementation (of research results)
de: Umsetzung (von Forschungsergebnissen)
fr: mise en œuvre (des resultats de recherche)
it: attuazione (di risultate de ricerca)
sl: izvajanje/uresničeva-nje
  A phase of the (transdisciplinary) process. Implementation comprises not only a synthesis of the results compiled in a project, but also the effects of these results. Possible effects include new insights, an altered perception of a problem, or an influence upon decision-making.
de: Innovation
fr: innovation
it: innovazione
sl: inovacija
Regional Value Added, Protected Areas Each action, which is not taking place in a specific rural region or in a thematic area before, is innovative to this region. Innovations are all changes which are deliberate by one or more initiators and which could achieve a positive outcome in their interest. Innovative actions must focus on projects in which a lot of players could take place. These actions should be exemplary and it should be possible to copy them in a cost-saving way. They should furthermore have positive or no negative impacts on the environment or the employment and serve for the collective good.
Instruments (political)
de: (politische) Instrumente
fr: instruments (politiques)
it: strumenti (politici)
sl: (politični) instrumenti
Policies and Instruments Means of pursuing an aim, for example formal or legal documents, plans, concepts, subsidies aso.
de: Interdisziplinarität
fr: interdisciplinarité
it: interdisciplinarietà
sl: interdisciplinarnost
  Several disciplines work together on a problem by going beyond the borders of the individual disciplines. Concepts and methods of the multiple disciplines are combined and transferred between the disciplines. Interdisciplinarity means that, e.g. agricultural economists co-operate with landscape ecologists, biologists with sociologists and psychologists, landscape planners with communication scientists aso. As opposed to that, the term 'multidisciplinarity' is used if several disciplines work on a problem side by side. It is a basic assumption that the quality of interdisciplinary co-operation depends on the competence of the disciplines involved.
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)
de: Weltnaturschutzunion
fr: Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature
it: Unione Internazionale per la Conservazione della Natura
sl: Svetovna zveza za varstvo narave
Protected Areas International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
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Kinds of decision making processes
de: Formen von Entscheidungsfindungsprozessen
fr: sortes de processus de prise de décisions
it: tipi di processi decisionali
sl: proces sprejemanja odločitev/proces odločanja
New Forms of Decision Making A variety, a sort of decision making processes.
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Leisure mobility
de: Freizeitverkehr
fr: trafic de loisirs
it: mobilità di svago (non sistematica)
sl: prostočasni promet
Mobility Mobility in connection with free time, relaxation or enjoyment, including travel behaviour and spatial aspects.
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de: Überwachung, Monitoring
fr: surveillance, monitoring
it: monitoraggio
sl: monitoring/ spremljanje in nadzorovanje
Protected Areas Regular observation and recording of activities taking place in a project or programme. It is a process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of the project and involves reporting and making use of the gathered information in order to improve project performance.
de: Motivation
fr: motivation
it: motivazione
sl: motivacija
Protected Areas Concept used to describe the factors within an individual which arouse, maintain and channel behaviour towards a goal.
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Negotiation procedures
de: Aushandlungsprozesse
fr: processus de négociation
it: processi di negoziazione
sl: pogajalski postopki
New Forms of Decision Making A series of actions conducted in a certain manner in order to reach an agreement or compromise
New forms of decision making
de: neue Formen der Entscheidungsfindung
fr: nouvelles formes de prise de décisions
it: nuove forme di processi decisionali
sl: nove oblike odločanja
New Forms of Decision Making See Synthesis Report (chapter 2.5)
New forms of decision making
de: neue Formen der Entscheidungsfindung
fr: nouvelles formes des processus de prise de décisions
it: nuovi tipi di processi decisionali
sl: proces sprejemanja odločitev/proces odločanja
New Forms of Decision Making 'New forms of decision making' are characterised as follows:
  • The procedure allows to integrate different types of knowledge (expert knowledge, 'local' knowledge, scientific knowledge, practical knowledge) by providing the framework required. Knowledge transfer between the different groups is desired and supported.
  • The issue dealt with is embedded into a wider and integrated approach, where at least neighbouring topics (horizontally and vertically) are considered.
  • There is a negotiation process with clear aims, rules and defined expected outcomes. Those, who are responsible for the procedure, actively encourage cooperation between the (conflicting) parties involved into the procedure.
  • 'Decision' is not only the decision itself, but also the procedure which finally leads to the decision. It includes information, awareness raising, negotiations etc.).
  • The decision making procedure has innovative potential compared with the traditionally used decision making procedures in either it's concept, methods and tools or involved actors. The decision making procedure may be already established or regularly used in some contexts, but should offer new possibilities for applications in other geographical,
New regional compensatory models
de: neue regionale Ausgleichsmodelle
fr: nouveaux modèles de compensation régionaux
it: nuovi modelli di compensazione regionali
sl: novi regionalni izravnalni modeli
Policies and Instruments Regulations to better balance the distribution of positive and negative economic, ecological or social effects between municipalities or regions, for example by transfer payments or other measures.
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de: Öpul (Österreichisches Programm für umweltgerechte Landwirtschaft)
Protected Areas Oepul is the Austrian programme for an environmental friendly agriculture. It is co-financed by the EU and aims for the enhancement of sustainable land use above all by financial support.
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Papaver alpinum kerneri
Biodiversity Hotspots Refer to:
de: Beteiligung, Partizipation
fr: participation
it: partecipazione
sl: udeležba, sodelovanje
New Forms of Decision Making 'Umbrella term' from political science including different means for the public to directly participate in political, economic or management decisions. We can distinguish between the participation in formalised or institutionalised procedures (e.g. elections, public polls, mediations, round tables, participatory planning instruments) and participation in order to influence a decision making process by the application of resources like relationships, power, (expert) knowledge or money.
de: Politik(en)
fr: politique(s)
it: politiche
sl: politike
Policies and Instruments Courses or principles of action adopted or proposed by an organisation or individual in order to reach certain aims.
Policy instruments
de: Instrumente der Politik
fr: Instruments politiques
it: strumenti politici
sl: politicni inštrumenti
Policies and Instruments Tools or means for pursuing policy objectives, for example formal or legal documents, plans, concepts, subsidies etc.
Political controllability
de: politische Kontrollmöglichkeiten
fr: possibilités de contrôle politique
it: possibilità di controllo della politica
sl: možnosti političnega nadzorovanja
Policies and Instruments Means political institutions have at their disposal in order to limit or regulate something.
Product chain
de: Produktkette
fr: chaîne de production
it: catena di produzione
sl: proizvodna veriga
  See value added chain
Protected area
de: Schutzgebiet
fr: espace protégé
it: area protetta
sl: zavarovano območje
Protected Areas Defined areas under national or international law and guidelines. There is a high variety of categories depending on national laws (25 categories in the alpine region). The most important categorical system is the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) system.
New and traditional types of large protected areas (National Parks, Regional Nature Parks, Biosphere Parks, Protected Landscapes IUCN category V, Managed Resource Protected Areas IUCN category VI aso.) incorporating resident human populations and their socio-economic structures as an essential element. Management objectives include both environmental conservation and sustainable regional development.
Protection by contract / compensation payments
de: Vertragsnaturschutz
fr: protection de la nature sur une base contractuelle
it: protezione della natura su base contrattuale
sl: pogodbeno varstvo
Protected Areas Protection by contract is a very common and successful instrument of nature conservation giving determined payments to the landowner for compensating yield reductions through specific land use burdens
Public action Policies and Instruments The manner in which a society perceives and qualifies collective problems, and then formulates analyses, responses an processes to handle them.
Public participation Policies and Instruments The involvement of the public (stakeholders, land owners, persons affected by a plan or a project as well as the general public) in planning, decision making, implementation and monitoring.
Public participation Protected Areas The involvement of the public (stakeholders, land owners, persons affected by a plan or a project as well as the general public) in planning, decision making, implementation and monitoring.
Public policies Policies and Instruments Plan of action applied by a recognised decisionmaking authority (on global, European, national, regional or local level).
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de: Empfehlung
fr: recommandation
it: raccomandazione
sl: priporočilo
Policies and Instruments Statements in order to put forward ideas, concepts, measures or projects which seem to be suitable for a specific purpose or role.
Policy recommendations may be based on an evaluation or on other research work
Regional chains   See value added chain
Regional governance
de: Regionale Governance
fr: gouvernance régionale
it: governance regionale
sl: regionalno upravljanje
New Forms of Decision Making Processes and rules of co-operation between organisations and stakeholders within a local area or a region and between local and regional authorities and organisations to find common solutions and strategies for a sustainable development. Special emphasis is laid upon openness, participation, effectiveness and coherence of a process.

Networks of organisations (including authorities) and stakeholders within an area, as well as processes and rules of cooperation between them. The term of "Regional governance" may be applied either in an analytical or in a normative way. "Good regional governance" implies the elaboration of common  strategies for a sustainable development of the area; special emphasis is laid upon openness, participation, effectiveness and coherence of processes.
Regional identities
de: regionale Identitäten
fr: identités régionales
it: identità regionali
sl: regionalne identitete
Governance Capacity Identity: the fact of being, who or what a person or thing is as well as the determining characteristics. Regional identities are influenced by various factors from local to global scale. Today, people often have more than only one single identity, that's why we use the word in plural.
Regional level
de: regionale Ebene
fr: niveau régional
it: livello regionale
sl: regionalna raven
Regional Value Added Level below national level, the scale depends on the specific issue. It can be a mountain valley, an administrative unit etc. EU definition: national = NUTS I, regional = NUTS II (Bundesland), local = district or area such as Montafon, Nationalpark Hohe Tauern aso.

Nonetheless, the "region level" is not easily identifiable in an univocal way, most of all in the different alpine languages and Countries. In this research what we mean with the term region is not related to administrative, cultural or geographic precise boundaries, but to a kind of "problem-region" that is to say a portion of territory with specific characteristics, such as a certain demographic dimension, which allow the resolution of sustainable development related problems.
Regional mobility concepts
de: regionale Verkehrskonzepte
fr: concepts de mobilité régionaux
it: piani regionali della mobilità
sl: regionalne prometne zasnove
Mobility Papers concerning aims, expected outcomes, procedures, measures and projects in connection with mobility at a regional level.
Regional welfare
de: regionale Wohlfahrt
fr: bien-être régional
it: welfare regionale
sl: regionalna blaginja
Mobility Actions or procedures designed to promote the basic physical and material well-being of people in a region, including the financial support given for this purpose.
Relevance (of public policies) Policies and Instruments Contribution of a public policy to meet societal needs and to solve the problems which are perceived as important.
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Salamandra lanzai
Biodiversity Hotspots Refer to:
Saxifraga florulenta
Biodiversity Hotspots

Refer to: or

Scope of action
de: Handlungsspielraum
fr: liberté d’action
it: margine di manovra
sl: obseg/področje delovanja
Policies and Instruments The opportunity or possibility of stakeholders and other actors or individuals for doing something.
Service chain   See value added chain
de: Langsamkeit
fr: lenteur
it: lentezza
sl: počasnost
Mobility New and specific aspects mainly of touristic marketing promoting qualities such as low speed, tranquillity, taking and having time.
Social capital
de: Sozialkapital
fr: capital social
it: capitale sociale
sl: družbeni kapital
Governance Capacity Driving force behind social relations and can be generated by a wide variety of different social interactions and institutions (see Robert D. Putnam: Making Democracy Work 1993, Bowling Alone 2000).
Social services
de: Soziale Dienstleistungen
fr: services sociaux
it: servizi sociali
sl: socialne storitve
Governance Capacity Services provided by the state or by private institutions for the community, such as education, social welfare, healthcare, religion, advocacy, fight against poverty aso.
Spatial polarisation
de: räumliche Polarisierung
fr: polarisation spatiale
it: polarizzazione spaziale
sl: prostorska polarizacija
Governance Capacity Spatial polarisation describes the trend of wealthy regions (for example metropolitan areas) developing better and better and less favoured regions (for example peripheral areas) declining more and more. This trend can be observed on different scales in and outside the Alps.
Spatial structure
de: Raumstruktur
fr: structure spatiale
it: struttura spaziale
sl: prostorska struktura
Mobility Distribution of land use, activities, and functional relations.
de: Stakeholder
fr: acteurs, parties prenantes
it: stakeholder (portatori di interessi)
sl: deležnik / uporabnik / zainteresirana stran
New Forms of Decision Making One who has a share or an interest, as in an enterprise. In the last decades of the 20th century, the word 'stakeholder' has evolved to mean a person or organisation that has a legitimate interest in a project or entity. Related to decision making processes for institutions – including large business corporations, government agencies and non-profit organisations – the concept has been broadened to include everyone with an interest (or 'stake') in what the entity does. That includes not only its vendors, employees, and customers, but even members of a community where its offices or factory may affect the local economy or environment.
Strategy Policies and Instruments Intention to resolve a problem by elaborating specific tools and action, defining goals for target objects, and applying them at a certain scale.
Successful development strategies
de: erfolgreiche Entwicklungsstrategien
fr: stratégies de développement fructueuses
it: strategie di sviluppo di successo
sl: uspešne razvojne strategie
Protected Areas Development strategies generating an additional economic, social and ecological benefit for a region, e.g. where a large protected area has been or will be established with the purpose of enhancing sustainable development.
Suitable methods
de: geeignete Methoden
fr: méthodes appropriées
it: metodi idonei
sl: ustrezne metode
New Forms of Decision Making Means or manners of (decision making) procedures, especially regular and systematic ways, that are appropriate to reach a decision.
Sustainable development
de: nachhaltige Entwicklung
fr: développement durable
it: sviluppo sostenibile
sl: trajnostni razvoj
  Regional value added is closely linked to the term of "regional sustainable development". A generally accepted definition of sustainable development in the political area is found in the "Brundtland report" 1987: 'Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.' Thereby economic, social and ecological processes are interrelated, and should be considered equally by public and private stakeholders (WCED 1987,
System knowledge
de: Systemwissen
fr: connaissance systémique
it: sistema di conoscenze
sl: sistemsko znanje
  Knowledge about empirical relationships between different parameters. System knowledge can be both quantitative and qualitative and includes knowledge from all scientific disciplines and practice. System knowledge can be of general interest or refer to a particular place, object or people.
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Target knowledge
de: Zielwissen
fr: connaissance ciblée
it: conoscenze mirate
sl: ciljno znanje
  Knowledge about the goals of different actors and their normative evaluation (objectives and value systems of actors). Target knowledge includes empirical knowlegde about the value system of different social groups as well as normative considerations. Laws and norms also have to be taken into account.
Theoretical knowledge
de: Theoretisches Wissen
fr: connaissance théorique
it: conoscenze teoriche
sl: teoretično znanje
Policies and Instruments Knowledge based on or involving theory rather than its practical application.
Tourism mobility
de: Tourismusverkehr
fr: mobilité touristique
it: mobilità turistica
sl: turistični promet
Mobility Mobility in connection with the commercial organisation and operation of holidays and visits to places of interest, including travel behaviour and spatial aspects.
de: Transdisziplinarität
fr: transdisciplinarité
it: transdisciplinarietà
sl: transdisciplinarnost
  Collaboration of multiple disciplines with the purpose of knowledge production for solving a practical problem and with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders and their needs. Scientists co-operate with e.g. schools, farmers, citizens, media and artists. The public, i.e. those who will be able to apply the research results, is involved in the research process at an early stage.
Transformation knowledge
de: Transformationswissen
fr: connaissance transformationnelle
it: conoscenze per il cambiamento
sl: preobrazbeno znanje
  Reflective and instrumental knowledge about how to modify actions and attitudes in order to achieve a goal (instruments and methods). Knowlegde about the feasibility of an action or measures has to be taken into account. Transformation knowledge includes knowledge from all disciplines of science and practice.
Transport system
de: Verkehrssystem
fr: système de transport
it: sistema di trasporto
sl: prometni sistem
Mobility Roads, railway, waterway and airway.
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UNESCO   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
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Value added chains (product chains, service chains)
de: Wertschöpfungskette
fr: filière de valeur ajoutée
it: catena di valore aggiunto
sl: veriga z dodano vrednostjo
Regional Value Added Product Chain: Chain of custody, including all elements of the production and trading process of a product.

Service Chain: Provision of services, including all elements of the development and appliance of a supplied service.

Value adding chains can range from the extraction of raw materials to the processing and marketing, and include different economic sectors such as trade, industry, agriculture and tourism.
Vascular plant
de: vaskuläre Pflanzen
fr: plante vasculaire
it: piante vascolari
sl: vaskularne rastline
Biodiversity Hotspots

Vascular plants are higher plants that have true conducting tissues (xylem and phloem), leaves, stems and roots. The majority of plants are vascular plants. Exceptions are for example mosses and green algae.

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