Development Types and Recent Development Trends
The individual municipality types are listed in Table 1. The definition of each type is based on a set of indicators, the most significant of which are the economic parameters (allocation to sectors), the level of commuting, and the intensity of tourism (see BÄTZING, MESSERLI & PERLIK 1995).
The municipality types can be summarised as follows:
- The (municipalities of the) urban areas: This includes the cities and the strongly urbanised surrounding municipalities. Strongly urbanised means that there are many jobs and incoming commuters. On maps 1-3 these municipalities are shown in red and dark violet.
- The tourism municipalities or areas: These are the second most active areas of growth in the Alps, sometimes demonstrating urban phenomena. On maps 1-3 these municipalities are shown in dark yellow.
- Suburban and peripheral municipalities or areas: The residential function dominates here, but there is only limited economic potential, few jobs and therefore many commuters and close interconnection with the urban areas. Suburban means: on the outskirts of a city or large town. These are the classic "sleeping municipalities". Peripheral means: far distant from the urban centres. These area the isolated side valleys. For technical reasons it was not possible to show the suburban and peripheral areas separately on the maps. However, it can be assumed that, with the exception of the job situation, the suburban municipalities fare better than peripheral municipalities in many other development indicators relating to demographic change or prosperity levels. In the following tables, this situation is reflected by fairly positive overall ratings for the grouping of suburban and peripheral municipalities. The more negative values of the peripheral municipalities are "hidden", as it were, in these positive values. On maps 1-3 these municipalities are shown in purple.
- Balanced municipalities: These are municipalities in which no particular sector strongly dominates and where there are no significant commuter movements. On maps 1-3 these municipalities are shown in grey.
- All other municipalities or areas: This includes for instance agricultural or industrial municipalities. The proportion of these specialised types is now so minimal in the Alps that in the tables they have been combined into a single 'others' group. However, on maps 1-3 these different types of municipalities are still shown separately.