Development Trends in the Alps

 

Integrated Development Indicators

Municipalities with Growth Vitality

In tables 11 and 12 as well as on maps 9 and 10, municipalities with growth vitality are presented on the one hand, and municipalities with structural and development weaknesses on the other. Municipalities with growth vitality include those that, as a basic parameter, experienced a population increase between 1981 and 2001. In addition, three further growth parameters were defined:

  • High proportion of the population at working age (15 to 64 years old): > 75th percentile = those municipalities in which the percentage of working age population is in the top quarter of all Alpine municipalities.
  • Significant increase in the number of buildings: > 75th percentile = those municipalities in which the percentage growth in number of buildings is in the top quarter of all Alpine municipalities.
  • High quota of incoming commuters: > 75th percentile = those municipalities in which the quota of incoming commuters is in the top quarter of all Alpine municipalities.

71.5% of all Alpine municipalities had an increase in population between 1981 and 2001. 28.5% of Alpine municipalities fulfilled one further growth parameter, 12.7% of Alpine municipalities fulfilled two further growth parameters, and 148 municipalities – that is 2.6% of all Alpine municipalities – fulfilled three further growth parameters. These municipalities include for instance: Mäder (A), Laax (CH), Les Gets (F), Postal/Burgstall (I) und Ravne (SI). Many of the municipalities that, over the period 1981 und 2001, fulfilled two or three of the further parameters are located in NUTS-3 regions with medium regional gross domestic product, for example in the western Alps. A number of these municipalities are located in areas with high GDP, for example western Austria, South Tyrol and Engadine. A further group is located in areas with low GDP, for example in the Slovenian Alps (see maps 8 and 9 in this regard).

Beispiel
Map 9: Growth parameters in municipalities in the Alpine arc (Source: CIPRA 2007). Click on the image to enlarge it.

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Further Readings & Links

BOESCH (2000)
Standort Alpen: Modernisierungsprozesse im Alpenraum zwischen Markt und Politik.

Municipalities with Structural and Developmental Problems

Municipalities with structural and developmental weaknesses include those in which the total population decreased between 1981 and 2001. Population change (in this case decline) is again the basic parameter. The three additional parameters for weaknesses in structure and development are:

  • Small municipality: population < 300.
  • Low proportion of the population at working age (15 to 64 years old): < 25th percentile = those municipalities in which the percentage of working age population is in the bottom quarter of all Alpine municipalities.
  • High quota of outgoing commuters: > 75th percentile = those municipalities in which the quota of outgoing commuters is in the top quarter of all Alpine municipalities.

28.5% of all Alpine municipalities experienced population decline either between 1981 and 2001 or between 1991 und 2001. 10.3% of Alpine municipalities fulfil one additional "weakness parameter", while 5.9% fulfil two. Only 30 of all Alpine municipalities, or 0.5%, fulfil all three additional "‘weakness parameters". These municipalities include Auressio (CH), Bonvillaret (F) und Seppiana (I). Many of the municipalities that, over the period from 1981 to 2001, fulfilled two or three additional "‘weakness parameters" are located in NUTS-3 regions with medium or low GDP (Ligurian Alps, Piedmont, East Tyrol, Lower Tauern, eastern foothills of the Alps). Of municipalities fulfilling two or three additional "weakness parameters" there are almost none that are located in NUTS-3 regions with high GDP.

Beispiel
Map 10: Weakness parameters in communities the Alpine arc (Source: CIPRA 2007). Click on the image to enlarge it.

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Alpine Key Data

In tables 11 and 12 a range of key data for the Alps from 1981 to 2001 has been summarised from all the preceding tables. Population and jobs increased overall by 11% and 14% respectively. However, 27% of all Alpine municipalities experienced a declining population between 1981 and 2001. The proportion of Alpine municipalities that suffered job losses in the last 20 years even exceeds 40%. Almost 63% of Alpine municipalities can be considered to have an excessively aged population. In 2001 the regional gross domestic product per capita was about 25,000 €, unemployment was at 6%. Between 1981 and 2001 there is an enormous growth in the number of buildings: +33.9%. The negative commuter balanced increased from 1991 to 2001 by 17% and is at almost 0.5 million people in 2001. Both the agricultural population and the number of agricultural enterprises have declined by over 40% in the last 20 years. Agriculturally utilised grassland areas in the Alps have reduced in size between 1991 and 2001 by approx. 74,000 hectares. This represents a decline of 2%.

Beispiel
Table 11: Key development data for the Alps 1981-2001. (Source: Adapted from CIPRA 2007).
1) Not including Italy and Slovenia, 2) Reduced sample due to limited data availability

Beispiel
Table 12: Key development data for the Alps 2001. (Source: Adapted from CIPRA 2007).
1) Not including Italy and Slovenia, 2) Based on the regional delimitation used by the Alpine Convention,
3) Reduced sample due to limited data availability
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