Protected Areas & Sustainable Regional Development


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Protected Areas & Regional Development

Protected Areas, Biodiversity and Landscape

Management of Protected Areas

Main Websites about Protected Areas & Sustainable Regional Development

Regional Development and Regional Value Added


Protected Areas & Biodiversity

Links to Selected Protected Areas in Austria

Links to Selected Protected Areas in France

Links to Selected Protected Areas in Germany

Links to Selected Protected Areas in Italy

Links to Selected Protected Areas in Slovenia

Links to Selected Protected Areas in Switzerland

Other Sources

BAUR B. et al. (2004): Biodiversität in der Schweiz – Zustand, Erhaltung, Perspektiven. Haupt-Verlag: Bern.
The possible causes for the local extinction of plant, butterfly, grasshopper, beetle and gastropod species are examined in several case studies. The impact of climatic changes brought on by global warming on habitats and possible extinction of species is also discussed. Some of the studies examine the effect of altered land use practices on the local biodiversity. In German and French.

BUNDESANSTALT FÜR BERGBAUERNFRAGEN (2002): Biodiversität im Alpengebiet - Evaluation und Bewertung. OECD – Fallstudie: Wien.
This study describes the biological resources of Austria’s Alpine and mountain regions and the main forces of change contributing to the loss of biodiversity. It also deals with the historic conditions of the development of land use as well as services of forest ecosystems and ecosystems of meadows and pastures and their functions in the Alpine area. The study describes possible economic and social consequences of biodiversity loss to the alpine regions. German with English summary. Download at:

BUNDESAMT FÜR UMWELT, WALD UND LANDSCHAFT(BUWAL) (2004): Lebensraum für bedrohte Arten. Faktenblatt Biodiversität. Internationaler Tag der Umwelt.
This short brochure gives a description of the threats to biodiversity, the legislation in relation to biodiversity conservation in Switzerland and in the world, and the Swiss response to biodiversity loss. In German.

CALAFATI, A.G. & MAZZONI, F. (2002): Conservation Policies as Local Development Policies: The Case of Italian National Park. In: Scienze Regionali Journal 3, 51-72.
This paper proposes a conceptual framework for conservation policies in protected territories where both cultural capital and natural capital are subject to conservation - as is the case of most national (and regional) natural parks in Italy. It argues that in protected territories where human landscapes are important part of local capital, conservation policies ought to be conceptualised as development policies.

FACHABTEILUNG RAUMPLANUNG-NATURSCHUTZ (2002): Best practice guide. Beispiele für eine erfolgreiche Nationalparkentwicklung in den Hohen Tauern. Fachbeiträge des Oesterreichischen Alpenvereins, Alpine Raumordnung Nr. 22.
Concrete implementation examples from the Virgental. The publication shows that protected areas such as the Hohe Tauern have a significant impact on regional development.

GRENZÜBERGREIFENDER ÖKOLOGISCHER VERBUND (Ed.) (2004): ALPARC Netzwerk Alpiner Schutzgebiete. Innsbruck: Alparc.
A study according to the mandate of the Alpine Convention: Coss-border protected areas and ecological networks in the Alps. Download at:

HAMMER, T., (2003.) Grossschutzgebiete - Instrumente nachhaltiger Entwicklung. München: ökom verlag.
The authors of the articles of this book evaluate the experiences of a number of protected areas and protected area types in Europe. They discuss the possibilities and limitations of large protected areas and regional development. The book also contains an array of well founded case studies and analyses and thus presents inputs for future regional development projects.

INTERNATIONALE ALPENSCHUTZKOMMISSION CIPRA. (2001): 2. Alpenreport: Daten, Fakten, Probleme, Lösungsansätze. Bern, Stuttgart, Wien: Verlag Paul Haupt.
Pages 265-336 of this book contain thirteen chapters that provide an in-depth overview of critical aspects of energy use in the alpine region. An introductory chapter compiles data on energy provision and energy use in the Alps, including lists of power plants, maps of energy infrastructures and estimates of energy use. Issues of energy efficiency and renewable energy supply receive in-depth treatment, in particular environmental effects of hydropower, biomass energy potentials, and issues related to the liberalisation of European energy markets. (Languages: German, French, Italian, Slovenian).

IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas & World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1994): Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. Gland: IUCN.
The guidelines attempt to establish greater understanding among all concerned about the different categories of protected areas. A central principle upon which the guidelines are based is that categories should be defined by the objectives of management, rather than the title of the area nor by the effectiveness of management in meeting those objectives.

JOINT NATURE CONSERVATION COMMITTEE (2003): Alpine Biodiversity in Europe: An Introduction. Berlin: Springer.
This booklet in English is an introductory companion to the book 'Alpine Biodiversity in Europe' (2003). The book has been produced by the joint efforts of a network of scientists working on biodiversity throughout the alpine areas of Europe (ALPNET 1998-2000), and was, sponsored by the European Science Foundation. The full volume "Alpine Biodiversity in Europe, Ecological Studies vol. 167" (NAGY, L., GRABHERR, G., KÖRNER, C., and THOMPSON, D.B.A., (Eds.) is published by Springer Verlag. See also

JUNGMEIER, M., GETZNER, M. (2002): Conservation policy and the regional economy: the regional economic impact of Natura 2000 conservation sites in Austria. In: Journal for Nature Conservation 10, 25-34.
By the example of four selected model regions in Austria, it can be demonstrated that the establishment of Natura 2000 conservation areas leads to at least small positive economic implications which means that regions can benefitfrom the establishment of a Natura 2000 protection area.

JUNGMEIER, M. & VELIK, I.(2005): IPAM-Toolbox. Final Report. Study commissioned by: Office of the Carinthian Government Dept.20, Execution:E.C.O. Institute for Ecology Ltd.: Klagenfurt.
The project IPAM – Toolbox (Integrative Protected Area Management by Example of the Alps. Adriatic Region) focuses on the evaluation, harmonisation and development of methods, instruments and infrastructures for planning and managing protected areas. See also

KÖRNER, C. & SPEHN, E. (2002): Mountain biodiversity – A Global Assessment. Parthenon Publishers, New York, London.
This book is a contribution to the International Year of the Mountains in 2002. It combines knowledge from around the world, gathered from contributions to the first international conference on mountain biodiversity, its function and change.

NAGY, L., GRABHERR, G., KÖRNER, C., THOMPSON, D.B.A. (Eds.) (2003): Alpine Biodiversity in Europe. Ecological Studies 167. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.
Covering all of Europe, this volume synthesises taxonomic, ecological, historical, functional and climatic studies to develop a holistic understanding of biodiversity at above the treeline. Main themes include: plant, vegetation and animal diversity, altitude gradients and spatial patterns, long-term changes and the effects of herbivores on diversity. Comparisons of current and long-term observations and data emphasise the historical tradition of alpine biodiversity research in Europe. Analyses of taxonomic and assembly data, at the continent-wide scale, provide insight into pattern and its historical and ecological causes.

NRP (National Research Programme) 48 (2007): Diversité alpine. Cahier thématique IV du PNR 48. Fonds national Suisse FNS: Berne.
This dossier (available in French and German) is dedicated to the alpine diversity. Various papers on the results of different research projects on biodiversity in the Alps, among them: an essay about the diversity as principle of life and organization and a more detailed description of various research projects and the actual changes and threats to this diversity. See also:

SPEHN E. & KÖRNER, C.(Ed.)(2005): Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment. Boca Raton: The Parthenon Publishing Group.
This book offers detailed facts on mountain biodiversity and reasons to promote conservation and sustainable use of mountain ecosystems. It also provides information on GMBA projects, activities, and its structure. There is also a short brochure on this book. See also:

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